# Hello!

Don't aim for success if you want it; just do what you love and believe in, and it will come naturally.

# 小事情【20170123】

Pub. Date:Jan. 23, 2017, 5:54 p.m. Topic:Life Discovery Tag:小事情

It's been only 18 years till the story of I, Robot happens...

Pub. Date:Jan. 22, 2017, 1:08 p.m. Topic:Computer Vision Tag:Reading Note

TITLE: Pixel Objectness

AUTHOR: Suyog Dutt Jain, Bo Xiong, Kristen Grauman

ASSOCIATION: The University of Texas at Austin

FROM: arXiv:1701.05349

## CONTRIBUTIONS

An end-to-end learning framework for foreground object segmentation is proposed. Given a single novel image, a pixel-level mask is produced for all “object-like” regions even for object categories never seen during training.

## METHOD

### Problem Formulation

Given an RGB image of size $m \times n \times c$ as input, the problem is formulated as densely labeling each pixel in the images as eigher "object" or "background". The output is a binary map of size $m \times n$.

### Dataset

Two different datasets are used including 1) one dataset with explicit boundary-level annotations and 2) one dataset with implicit imagelevel object category annotations.

### Training

The network is first trained on a large scale object classification task, such as ImageNet 1000-category classification. This stage can be regarded as training on an implicit labeled dataset. Its image representation has a strong notion of objectness built inside it, even though it never observes any segmentation annotations.

Then the network is trained on PASCAL 2012 segmentation dataset, which is an explicit labeled dataset. The 20 object labels are discarded, and mapped instead to the single generic "object-like" (foreground) label for training.

# READING NOTE: Towards Accurate Multi-person Pose Estimation in the Wild

Pub. Date:Jan. 19, 2017, 5:26 p.m. Topic:Computer Vision Tag:Reading Note

TITLE: Towards Accurate Multi-person Pose Estimation in the Wild

AUTHOR: George Papandreou, Tyler Zhu, Nori Kanazawa, Alexander Toshev, Jonathan Tompson, Chris Bregler, Kevin Murphy

FROM: arXiv:1701.01779

## CONTRIBUTIONS

A method for multi-person detection and 2D keypoint localization in the wild is proposed.

## METHOD

The multi-person pose estimation system is a two step cascade, as illustrated in the Following figure.

In the first stage, a person detector is used to produce a bounding box around each person instance. In the second stage, a pose estimator is produced to the image crop extracted around each detected person instance in order to localize its keypoints.

### Person Box Detection

A Faster-RCNN system based on ResNet-Inception architecture is used for person box detection. The detector is first trained on 80 categories in COCO dataset. Then the model is further finetuned on dataset only with bounding boxes of person.

### Person Pose Estimation

A combined classification and regression approach is adoptted. Each spatial position is first classified whether it is in the vicinity of keypoints (K types) or not (which is a K-channel “heatmap”), then a 2-D local offset vector is predicted to get a more precise estimate of the corresponding keypoint location. The following figure illustrates the procedure.

The bounding box is first adjusted to a fixed aspect ratio (height/width = 1.37) and the patch is cropped from the image and resized to 353*257. A ResNet with 101 layers is used to produce heatmap and offsets. The following figure shows an input and ground-truth output of the network.

## SOME IDEAS

1. The pipeline in two stages separated detection and pose estimation.
2. The relations between keypoints might be learnt in CNN, but it is not obvious.

# 小事情【2017.01.18】

Pub. Date:Jan. 18, 2017, 8:38 p.m. Topic:Life Discovery Tag:小事情

# READING NOTE: YOLO9000: Better, Faster, Stronger

Pub. Date:Jan. 11, 2017, 9:11 p.m. Topic:Computer Vision Tag:Reading Note

TITLE: YOLO9000: Better, Faster, Stronger

ASSOCIATION: University of Washington, Allen Institute for AI

FROM: arXiv:1612.08242

## CONTRIBUTIONS

1. several improvements have been made for YOLO.
2. a new method is proposed to harness the large amount of classification data and use it to expand the scope of detection systems.
3. a joint training algorithm is proposed that trains object detectors on both detection and classification data.

## METHOD

The authors summarize the work as a better, faster and Stronger version of YOLO.

### Better

1. Batch Normalization

Batch Normalization is used in this work. The authors claim that it helps YOLO get more than 2% improvement in mAP. Even though, I doubt BN would help or it might even worsen the performance in real world applications because of my own experience using BN.

2. High Resolution Classifier

Instead finetuned on 224224 images, the classification network is finetuned on 448448 images, which helps the network perform better on higher resolution. This high resolution classification network gives an increase of almost 4% mAP.

3. Convolutional With Anchor Boxes

In YOLOv2, anchor boxes and FCN manner are also adopted. This enbles the YOLO generate much more boxes, which improves recall from 81% (69.5 mAP) to 88% (69.2 mAP).

4. Dimension Clusters

Prior works usally define the anchor boxes by hand, for example 1:1, 1:2(2:1) or 1:3(3:1) in SSD. In this work, the anchor boxes are defined by clustering. K-means clustering is used and the distance metric is defined based on IOU, which eliminates the effect caused by the actual size of boxes: larger boxes generate more error than smaller boxes using Euclidean distance.

5. Direct Location Prediction

Instead of predicting offsets to the center of the bounding box, YOLO9000 predicts location coordinates relative to the location of the grid cell, which bounds the ground truth to fall between 0 and 1. Then constrained location prediction is easier to learn.

6. Fine-Grained Features

In order to ultize finer grained features for localizing smaller objects, the authors add a passthrough layer that brings features from an earlier layer. This is similar what has been done in ResNet.

7. Multi-Scale Training

Data of different resolutions are used to train the network. This regime forces the network to learn to predict well across a variety of input dimensions. This means the same network can predict detections at different resolutions.

### Faster

1. Instead of using VGG-16, The YOLO framework uses a custom network Darnet-19, which has has 19 convolutional layers and 5 maxpooling layers.

### Stronger

1. Hierarchical Classification

A hierarchical prediction is built. Several nodes are added to build a tree. At each node, a semantic category is defined at a level. Thus images of different objects may be combined as one label because they belong to one higher level semantic label.

2. Joint Classification and Detection

Two datasets are used to train the large scale detetor. One is a traditional classification dataset, which contains a large number of categories. The other one is a detection dataset. When a detection image is seen, backpropagate loss as normal. For classification loss, only backpropagate loss at or above the corresponding level of the label.